Health Provider Perform Physical Exam And Ask
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions such as when the allergy occurs. Allergy testing may be needed to determine if the symptoms are an actual allergy or caused by other problems. For example, eating contaminated food (food poisoning) may cause symptoms similar to food allergies.Some medications (such as aspirin and ampicillin) can produce non-allergic reactions, including rashes. A runny nose or cough may actually be due to an infection.
Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. One type of skin testing is the prick test. It involves placing a small amount of the suspected allergy-causing substances on the skin, and then slightly pricking the area so the substance moves under the skin. The skin is closely watched for signs of a reaction, which include swelling and redness. Skin testing may be an option for some young children and infants.
Other types of skin tests include patch testing and intradermal testing. For detailed information, see:Allergy testingBlood tests can measure the levels of specific allergy-related substances, especially one called immunoglobulin E (IgE).A complete blood count (CBC), specifically the eosinophil white blood cell count, may also help reveal allergies.
Reaction To Physical Triggers By Apply Heat Cold
In some cases, the doctor may tell you to avoid certain items to see if you get better, or to use suspected items to see if you feel worse. This is called “use or elimination testing.” This is often use to check for food or medication allergies. The doctor may also check your reaction to physical triggers by apply heat, cold, or other stimulation to your body and watching for an allergic response.
Sometimes, a suspected allergen is dissolved and droppe into the lower eyelid to check for an allergic reaction. This should only be done by a health care provider.Some children may outgrow an allergy. This is particularly true of food allergies. However, as a general rule, once a substance has triggered an allergic reaction, it continues to affect the person.
Most allergies can be easily treated with medication:
Allergy shots are most effective when used to treat those with hay fever symptoms and severe insect sting allergies. They are not used to treat food allergies because of the danger of a severe reaction. Allergy shots may require years of treatment, but they work in most cases. However, they may cause uncomfortable side effects (such as hives and rash) and dangerous outcomes (such as anaphylaxis).
Prevent Atopic Dermatitis Allergy And Wheezing
Breast-feeding children for at least 4 months or more may help prevent atopic dermatitis cow milk allergy, and wheezing in early childhood.However, changing a mother’s diet during pregnancy or while breast-feeding does not seem to help prevent allergy-related conditions.
For most children, changing diet or special formulas does not seem to prevent these problems. If there is a family history of eczema and allergies in a parent, brother, or sister, discuss the infant feeding with your child’s doctor. The timing of introduction of solid foods in general, as well as use of several specific foods, can help prevent some allergies.
There is also evidence that infants exposed to certain airborne allergens (such as dust mites and cat dander) may be less likely to develop related allergies. This is called the “hygiene hypothesis” and sprang from observations that infants on farms tend to have fewer allergies than those who grow up in environments that are more sterile.
Allergies Have Developed Treating The Allergies
Once allergies have developed, treating the allergies and carefully avoiding those things that cause reactions can prevent allergies in the future.
When to contact a doctor
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:
• Severe symptoms of allergy occur
• Treatment for allergies no longer works
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints, which results in pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited movement. There are over 100 different types of arthritis.
If you have arthritis, you may experience:
Treatment of arthritis depends on the particular cause, which joints are affected, severity, and how the condition affects your daily activities. Your age and occupation will also be taken into consideration when your doctor works with you to create a treatment plan.
If possible, treatment will focus on eliminating the underlying cause of the arthritis. However, the cause is NOT necessarily curable, as with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment, therefore, aims at reducing your pain and discomfort and preventing further disability.
It is possible to greatly improve your symptoms from osteoarthritis and other long-term types of arthritis without medications. In fact, making lifestyle changes without medications is preferable for osteoarthritis and other forms of joint inflammation. If needed, medications should be use in addition to lifestyle changes.
Healthy Joints Relieve Stiffness Reduce
Exercise for arthritis is necessary to maintain healthy joints, relieve stiffness, reduce pain and fatigue, and improve muscle and bone strength. Your exercise program should be tailore to you as an individual. Work with a physical therapist to design an individualized program, which should include.
A physical therapist can apply heat and cold treatments as needed and fit you for splints or orthotic (straightening) devices to support and align joints. This may be particularly necessary for rheumatoid arthritis. Your physical therapist may also consider water therapy, ice massage, or transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS).
Rest is just as important as exercise. Sleeping 8 to 10 hours per night and taking naps during the day can help you recover from a flare-up more quickly and may even help prevent exacerbations. You should also:
• Avoid positions or movements that place extra stress on your affected joints.
• Modify your home to make activities easier. For example, have grab bars in the shower, the tub, and near the toilet.
• Reduce stress, which can aggravate your symptoms. Try meditation or guided imagery. And talk to your physical therapist about yoga or tai chi.
Other Measures To Try Include
• Apply capsaicin cream (derived from hot chili peppers) to the skin over your painful joints. You may feel improvement after applying the cream for 3-7 days.
• Eat a diet rich in vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants like vitamin E. These are found in fruits and vegetables. Get selenium from Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, garlic, whole grains, sunflower seeds, and Brazil nuts. Get omega-3 fatty acids from cold water fish (like salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rapeseed (canola) oil, soybeans, soybean oil, pumpkin seeds, and walnuts.
• Taking glucosamine and chondroitin — these form the building blocks of cartilage, the substance that lines joints. These supplements are available at health food stores or supermarkets. While some studies show such supplements may reduce osteoarthritis symptoms, others show no benefit. However, since these products are regard as safe, they are reasonable to try and many patients find their symptoms improve.
Your doctor will choose from a variety of medications as needed. Generally, the first drugs to try are available without a prescription. These include:
• Acetaminophen (Tylenol) — recommended by the American College of Rheumatology and the American Geriatrics Society as first-line treatment for osteoarthritis. Take up to 4 grams a day (two arthritis-strength Tylenol every 8 hours). This can provide significant relief of arthritis pain without many of the side effects of prescription drugs. DO NOT exceed the recommended doses of acetaminophen or take the drug in combination with large amounts of alcohol. These actions may damage your liver.
• Aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen — these nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often effective in combating arthritis pain. However, they have many potential risks, especially if used for a long time. They should not be take in any amount without consulting your doctor. Potential side effects include heart attack, stroke, stomach ulcers, bleeding from the digestive tract, and kidney damage. In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked makers of NSAIDs to include a warning label on their product that alerts users of an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have kidney or liver disease, or a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, you should not take these medicines unless your doctor specifically recommends them.
Prescription Medicines Include
Biologics– these are the most recent breakthrough for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Such medications, including etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira), are administere by injection and can dramatically improve your quality of life. Newer biologics include Orencia (abatacept) and Rituxan (rituximab).Corticosteroids (“steroids”) — these are medications that suppress the immune system and symptoms of inflammation. They are often injecte into painful osteoarthritic joints. Steroids are use to treat autoimmune forms of arthritis but should be avoid in infectious arthritis.
Steroids have multiple side effects, including upset stomach and gastrointestinal bleeding, high blood pressure, thinning of bones, cataracts, and increas infections. The risks are most pronounce when steroids are take for long periods of time or at high doses. Close supervision by a physician is essential.Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors — These drugs block an inflammation-promoting enzyme call COX-2. This class of drugs was initially believe to work as well as traditional NSAIDs, but with fewer stomach problems. However, numerous reports of heart attacks and stroke have prompted the FDA to re-evaluate the risks and benefits of the COX-2s. Celecoxib (Celebrex) is still available, but labele with strong warnings and a recommendation that it be prescribe at the lowest possible dose for the shortest duration possible.
Talk to your doctor about whether COX-2s are right for you.Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs — these have been use traditionally to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune causes of arthritis. These drugs include gold salts, penicillamine, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine. More recently, methotrexate has been shown to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and improve your quality of life. Methotrexate itself can be highly toxic and requires frequent blood tests for patients on the medication. Immunosuppressants — these drugs, like azathioprine or cyclophosphamide, are use for serious cases of rheumatoid arthritis when other medications have faile.
SURGERY AND OTHER APPROACHES
In some cases, surgery to rebuild the joint (arthroplasty) or to replace the joint (such as a total knee joint replacement) may help maintain a more normal lifestyle. The decision to perform joint replacement surgery is normally make when other alternatives, such as lifestyle changes and medications, are no longer effective.
Normal joints contain a lubricant called synovial fluid. In joints with arthritis, this fluid is not producedin adequate amounts. In some cases, a doctor may inject the arthritic joint with a manmade version of joint fluid. The synthetic fluid may postpone the need for surgery at least temporarily and improve the quality of life for persons with arthritis.
It is very important to take your medications as directed by your doctor. If you are having difficulty doing so (for example, due to intolerable side effects), you should talk to your doctor.